There are a few traits that are almost completely co-morbid with autism: chronic anxiety and ADD/ADHD. If you have autism, you have anxiety and attention problems.
Autism, though, isn’t the only thing where anxiety and attention problems are co-morbid. The same is true of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). When you have PTSD, you are in a state of constant anxiety and constant hyper-vigilance. Hyper-vigilance means you are constantly actively keeping close tabs on the environment. Your attention is drawn to every little thing, to anything you catch out of the corner of your eye.
This hyper-vigilance sounds an awful lot like ADD/ADHD. Hyper-vigilance is actually how I would describe my ADD. It’s not that I have a hard time paying attention–rather, I have a hard time not paying attention to literally everything around me. To the person I’m directly in front of, it’s going to appear that I am having a hard time paying them attention, though.
If we understand ADD/ADHD as hyper-vigilance, this could then easily explain why many with ADD/ADHD can pay close attention to video games, for example. After all, many video games simulate conditions in which hyper-vigilance is needed to succeed.
Obsessive focus on an area of interest could also be understood as hyper-vigilance. Hyper-vigilance will also require hyper-focus if and when the “danger” is located. When there is no actual danger, that hyper-focus could manifest itself in a variety of other ways, including obsessive interests.
Hyper-vigilance comes out of anxiety, and we autistics are full of anxiety. In our case, the anxiety stems from our constantly being bombarded by sensory input. We’re overstimulated, and oftentimes that stimulation doesn’t get integrated well. It should not be surprising if an intense environment should result in hyper-vigilance within that environment. Anxiety is the intermediary.
While I myself do not use any kind of medication, and we do not use medication on our son, I do understand why some might want to medicate themselves or their children. The typical medication is for ADD/ADHD–things like Ritalin–because that’s the most problematic behavior. However, if my suspicions are correct, we are very much treating the symptoms of anxiety rather than dealing with the deeper cause–the anxiety itself.
Since we cannot rewire the brain, we cannot treat the ultimate cause (and we with autism probably wouldn’t want to do that, anyway, since that wiring is part of who we are as human beings), but anti-anxiety medications may go a long way toward eliminating at least the co-morbidity of ADD/ADHD. They would also likely alleviate some of our social issues, which stem from that anxiety.
The general rise in ADD/ADHD and the high prevalence of it in the U.S. can, I believe, based on this thesis, be traced to the fact that our school system is making our children far more anxious than ever before. But that’s a whole other set of issues. I will say, though, that rather than putting more children on Ritalin and related drugs or anti-anxiety medications, perhaps if our schools treated students as ends in themselves rather than as means to achieve testing outcomes to make administrators look good and justify their 6-digit salaries, there wouldn’t be nearly as many children with ADD/ADHD.