Adult Diagnosis: Now What?

Once I diagnosed myself with autism, I wanted a formal diagnosis. Many people have wondered why you would want a diagnosis when you’re already an adult.

I can only speak for myself. I have my Ph.D. in the humanities, so I have read a great many philosophers (I read a great many philosophers prior to getting my degree, which was among the reasons I wanted a Ph.D. in the humanities), and if there is a common thread among the philosophers, it is that you need to get to know yourself. To “know yourself”–as written at the Temple of Apollo at Delphi (home of the Oracle at Delphi)–you have to think long and hard about yourself and your place in the world. I add to this having contemporary biological, evolutionary, psychological, neurological, and sociological knowledge about yourself as well. So to me, knowing whether or not I was autistic would allow me to better know myself.

Using the knowledge to better understand oneself means that you use that knowledge to better oneself, to understand one’s place in society, to clarify your past actions. It doesn’t mean you’ll suddenly be able to “fix” yourself; rather, it means you’ll have greater clarity about who you are and why you do the things you do.

That, I think, is what people ought to do with an adult diagnosis. But I know for a fact that that’s not always what happens. I know of someone who suspected her husband was on the spectrum. She started sharing information about Asperger’s with him, and he became convinced he was autistic. As a result, he started using it as an excuse for everything, to excuse everything he did. They ended up getting a divorce.

Too many people cannot seem to tell the difference between having a reason for something and having an excuse for something. Autism is a reason I may fail to notice you trying to greet me in a public place, but it’s no excuse to be rude. Knowing that my autism may make me less attentive to people immediately in front of me, I can make more of an effort to focus on whoever may be closer by, which will make it more likely I will notice when someone is trying to greet me.

There are of course other things I cannot help, such as my short term memory amnesia. Knowing about that won’t help me, but it most certainly does help others understand why it is that I can remember volumes of information while being simultaneously unable to remember your name right after you told it to me. Throughout the years I have been with my wife, I have told her that if she wants me to do something or get more than three items from the store, she will need to write it down. She thought that was ridiculous given how prodigious my long term memory is. When she heard the doctor diagnose me with short term amnesia, though, she finally understood what I had been telling her all these years was true. Now I get lists.

My diagnosis has, I believe, strengthened my marriage somewhat by my wife having a better understanding of some of the things I do and say (and don’t do and don’t say). I’m sure some of it is still annoying, but at least there’s some understanding there of it. And if something gets to annoying, I really do try to change what I’m doing, etc.

I also believe my diagnosis has helped me with my scholarship. I have published several peer reviewed articles on spontaneous order theory–a theory of economics and sociology–and I assumed like everyone else that people were fundamentally the same in their thinking, with slight variations in IQ or between men and women. However, I now know that not to be the case at all. The idea of neurodiversity suggests a much more complex system, a more deeply heterogeneous social system, than most people realize. This neurodiversity is what makes human society so dynamic and creative. The lack of it in other social species it what keeps them relatively stagnant in comparison.

My diagnosis, then, has had a significant impact on the way I think of myself and on the way I think about social issues. When you begin to realize that so many important people in the past and present were on the autism spectrum, and that autism is over-represented among creative people, you start thinking about creativity and social evolution quite differently. You also think about the importance of autism in society differently.

I’m not sure I would have written this blog if only my son were diagnosed with autism. I do not think I would have obsessively learned all I have learned about autism without my being autistic myself, so I certainly wouldn’t have had the depth and breadth of topics as I have had here.

In any case, I’m glad I was diagnosed. I suspect it has weakened some relationships from people who are likely sick of hearing me talk about autism all the time. I also suspect those people miss my talking about topics they found interesting. But it has also strengthened a few relationships. I know myself much better than I did before, and I think I understand the world a little better as well. Which is probably no coincidence. Know yourself, know the world.

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RNA Methylation

People rarely understand just how complex molecular biology really is. People are out there looking for the “autism gene” or “genes,” but have only found a low percentage of people who can be connected to a specific genetic change in a particular protein-producing gene. For many people, that means that environment is likely to be the main cause. However, there are many other factors in molecular biology that will have an effect on cellular outcomes that won’t be connected to a mutation in a protein-producing gene.

There are a variety of other things active inside a cell that affect protein expression and function. DNA can be methylated such that certain genes are turned off. RNA can be methylated as well, which affects translation of mRNA into proteins. The benefits of methylating RNA over DNA is that the cell is able to respond to its environment much more quickly. As the linked article notes, this allows for proteins to be turned on at synapses very far from the neuron’s nucleus. Both forms of methylation are of course a result of a protein or protein complex, meaning there is a gene or set of genes involved in them as well. So it still ends up being genetic–the only thing is that we won’t be looking for direct proteins, but rather proteins involved in these regulatory processes.

Insofar as the numbers of certain proteins in synapses is connected to certain varieties of autism, one should definitely look at regulatory elements in the production of those proteins, the transport of those proteins, the folding of those proteins, and the insertion of those proteins into the membrane when relevant. Those will all involve completely different protein complexes and processes, meaning there are a large number of potential pathways to the same basic outcome.

I think it’s important to learn how the various forms of neurodiversity come about simply because I support any and all basic research. I do think, though, that we need to change people’s attitudes about autism in general as we make these discoveries. It may be–and it’s likely to be–the case that those with such severe autism that they are rendered severely disabled (autism 3) are genetically quite different from the rest (autism 1 and 2), and that there might be a very wide variety of things we’re placing under the “autism” umbrella.

At the same time, it’s clear that my autism 2 son inherited his autism from me, though I’m only autism 1. This suggests either an environmental factor also being in play, or combinations of genes , or both affecting degree. There may be gene combinations which result in autism, so that if for example, you have gene X and gene Y, and mutation x’ and mutation y’, then XY would be neurotypical, X’Y would be neurotypical, XY’ would be neurotypical, and X’Y’ would be autistic, for example. Or there could be certain benefits to X’Y or XY’ for those individuals, yet when they get together and make an X’Y’ autistic child. Or X’Y’ is more sensitive to environmental factors than are the other three combinations, such that in the right environment, even X’Y’ won’t result in autism.

As I said, these things are very complex. Anyone who tells you they have a simple answer to the cause of autism is selling snake oil.

Autism and the Emergence of Art

Around 30,000 years ago, extremely detailed, realistic art emerged in cave paintings. Believe it or not, there are many scholars out there who believe this occurred because the artists were autistic.

Lead author of the paper, Professor Penny Spikins from the Department of Archaelogy at the University of York, said: “Detail focus is what determines whether you can draw realistically; you need it in order to be a talented realistic artist. This trait is found very commonly in people with autism and rarely occurs in people without it.”

Which itself raises some interesting issues regarding the history of art and the proliferation of realism during periods such as the Renaissance.
A related article also suggests that human societies really took off only after they learned to tolerate the presence of people who thought and behaved differently. Oddly, we seem to be losing that trait even as we are gaining acceptance of people who merely look differently.
Either way, it’s obvious that autism has been around for a very long time indeed. The idea that autism may be adaptive for humans at the level of group selection is something I myself have suggested. It would appear that autistics are important for the development of artistic styles and a concentration on extreme realism. Of course, that means that during artistic periods dominated by iconoclasm, such as we saw in Modernism and Postmodernism, select against autistic artists. It is likely, though, that we will again have our day.

Who is up for another autistic-lead renaissance?

 

 

Neurodiversity and Group Selection

Humans are hypersocial, but hypersociality doesn’t necessarily mean acceptance of diversity. And yet, humans do manage to be both hypersocial and accepting of difference. Recent research suggests that the acceptance of diversity occurred about 100,000 years ago, and allowed for more general accepting of such diversity as autism.

Why is this important? Well, if wider acceptance of neurodiversity, meaning diverse ways of thinking and behaving, were to be adaptive for groups, we would expect humans expressing such acceptance to have come to dominate. What was later developed as specialization and gains through trade likely started with a general acceptance of different kinds of human behaviors within the tribes.

Why is acceptance of neurodiversity important? Well, neurotypical people are great at copying what everyone else is doing, but it turns out that as a result, they are actually pretty poor at coming up with new things. Autistic people in particular tend to try to solve things without relying on how things have always been done. This results in innovations that improve the material conditions of everyone in the tribe, and which everyone else dutifully copies. As a result, there is a balance between stable copiers and unstable innovators that keeps human populations on the edge of order and chaos, known as criticality. This is in fact the most creative space a self-organizing network process can be in.

Presently there is not a lot of acceptance of neurodiversity, at least not in the U.S. There is some anecdotal appreciation of a few people who people think may be on the spectrum, but these people are typically seen as outliers rather than a healthy part of our social networks. So much emphasis is put on everyone being the same and acting the same and thinking the same (lip service to “thinking outside the box” notwithstanding) that people who are in fact different in the ways they think and act and experience the world are held in contempt.

In fact, it is this contempt in which we on the spectrum are generally held that I try to focus on many of the positive aspects of being on the spectrum. We need to have healthier attitudes toward neurodiversity precisely because groups that don’t have such diversity stagnate at best. And really, nature abhors stagnation, meaning there is either growth or death. Dynamic tensions create growth; eliminating those tensions results in equilibrium, or death. A healthy society is a diverse society.